In Part 4 you will learn patterns of aspectual usage in the imperative; it consists of 6 modules that address usages of imperfective imperatives that refer to single completable actions, i.e., usage in which the speaker makes a request for someone to carry out a single action and complete it.
But before we get to those modules, we need to get used to differentiating between imperfective imperatives that refer to open-ended processes and repeated events on the one hand, and imperfective imperatives that refer to single actions to be completed on the other. The exercises that follow are much like exercises A–C from part 1—you need to identify what the imperfective imperatives that refer to single completed actions.
In this exercise, choose whether each bolded imperfective imperative refers to (1) a situation viewed as an open-ended process, (2) a situation consisting of a single action to be completed.
We have the same association of the imperfective with repeated events in the imperative as well. The following exercise focuses on repeated events versus single events in imperfective imperatives.
In this exercise, choose whether each bolded imperfective imperative refers to (1) a repeated action or (2) a situation consisting of a single action to be completed.
Hopefully you have now gotten used to the idea that imperfective imperatives can indeed be used when the speaker wants someone to complete an action once. Perfective imperatives also get used in requests for the listener to complete an action once, which should only stand to reason. However, occasionally they are used in general step-by-step instructions for everyone, in which case they refer to repeated events. Exercise 3 adds perfective imperatives to the mix.
For each of the following items, choose whether the bolded verb is perfective or imperfective, and whether it refers to a process, repeated actions, or a single completable action.
Now that you are more comfortable in recognizing which imperfective imperatives refer to single completable actions, in the next module we reconsider what the two aspects are doing in the basic patterns of aspectual usage in the imperative.